Art by Francesco Guarino
This is probably the only reference to a centaur I know of in Catholic dogma:
The satyr and the centaur
Saint Anthony was on a journey in the desert to find Saint Paul of Thebes, who according to his dream was a better Hermit than he (Vitae Patrum Book 1a- Collected from Jerome. Chpt VI). Saint Anthony had been under the impression that he was the first person to ever dwell in the desert; however, due to the dream, Saint Anthony was called into the desert to find his “better” Saint Paul. On his way there, he ran into two demons in the forms of a centaur and a satyr. Many works of art depict Saint Anthony meeting with the centaur and the satyr. Western theology considers these demons to have been temptations. At any rate, he was stopped by these demons and he asked them, “Who are you?” To that the satyr replied, “I am a corpse, one of those whom the heathen call satyrs, and by whom they are snared into idolatry.” The satyr then tried to terrify the saint while the centaur acknowledged the overthrow of the gods. In the end, the centaur tried to show Saint Anthony the way to his destination while the satyr ended up asking for Saint Anthony’s blessing.
Art by Jacopo Negretti